Very limited water availability – low planting density allows each vines roots to take up water from a large area of soil with having to compete.
Low levels of nutrients and sufficient rainfall – provided it has access to enough water, a wine will thrive in barely fertile soil. In order to counteract vegetative growth vines may be planted in high density – ensures competition for resources to restrict vegetation.
High levels of nutrients and sufficient rainfall – fertile soils are not suitable for viticulture. High density planting is not enough to limit vine growth. Another solution involves low-density planting using vines with multiple cordons or canes.