Permanent structures of stakes and wires used to support replacement canes and vines annual growth.
Untrellised – shoots will hang down often as far as the ground. These are called bush vines. Typically,
head-trained and spur-pruned.
Best suited for warm-hot, dry, sunny regions such as Barossa Valley, Australia, where extra shade helps to
protect the grapes.
Shade can impede ripening and restrict airflow, causing disease – this is avoided in Beaujolais where shoots
of head-trained, spur-pruned vines are tied at the tips – exposing bunches to air and sunlight – referred to
as the Gobelet training system.
Trellised – each row of vines requires a line of posts joined by horizontal wires – canes and vines are tied to
– Control the amount of sunlight that gets into the canopy
– An open canopy can improve air circulation (damp stagnant air promotes fungal disease)
– Can aid mechanisation
The most widely used system is Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP) – can be used with replacement cane or
spur pruned vines. Shoots trained vertically and are tied in place forming a single narrow canopy – shoots
kept apart meaning open canopy, well aerated and shade free.
In hot sunny regions VSP can be adapted so the tops of the shoots flop over creating some shade to protect