Refers to the permanent wood of the vine:
Head Training – relatively little permanent wood – some only have a trunk. They can be spur pruned or
replacement cane pruned.
Cordon Training – Typically have a trunk with one or more permanent horizontal arms or cordons. The
vines are usually spur pruned.
Cordon training takes longer to establish because of the greater amount of wood. But a permanent sturdy
cordon with shoots positioned along it makes mechanisation easier to achieve.
Low trained to benefit from heat retained by the soil, or high trained to avoid frost.